Aquaculture is the cultivation of fish in the open sea, typically in deeper waters beyond the coastal zone. Unlike traditional fish farming methods conducted in nearshore environments, sea-based aquaculture operations are situated farther offshore, often in exposed marine environments.

  1. Floating Cages: Floating cages are large, submerged net pens or enclosures anchored to the seabed or floating on the surface. These cages hold fish such as salmon, sea bass, or tuna and allow for natural water exchange and circulation while providing containment for the fish.
  2. Submersible Cages: Submersible cages are similar to floating cages but are designed to be partially or fully submerged below the surface, depending on environmental conditions. These cages may be equipped with buoyancy control systems to adjust their depth in response to changes in water conditions.
  3. Moored Pens: Moored pens are fixed structures submerged or surface-level cages anchored to the seabed using mooring lines or weights. These pens are often used for species that prefer deeper waters or require more stable conditions than floating cages can provide.
  4. Offshore Farms: Some sea-based aquaculture operations involve the deployment of offshore platforms or structures specifically designed for fish farming. These farms may be located in deeper waters far from the coastline and can accommodate larger-scale production of fish and other marine species.

Sea-based fish farming offers several potential advantages over traditional nearshore aquaculture, including:

  • Greater Water Depth: Offshore locations typically offer deeper waters with stronger currents, which can enhance water quality, dilute waste, and reduce the risk of disease transmission among farmed fish.
  • Reduced Environmental Impact: By moving aquaculture operations farther offshore, sea-based farms can minimize potential conflicts with coastal ecosystems and reduce the risk of pollution or habitat degradation.

The following types of nettings are suitable for aquaculture: